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On this page you will find information on how to reference

Many publications that were previously published in print are now electronic documents accessible on the internet. These can not be seen as a uniform type of publication.  How to refer to them can vary from case to case. You have to determine what type of publication the document is.

Generally, you follow the same principles as with printed sources. Sometimes the publication year is missing. In this case, use last update information if this is available.

Immediately after the title of an electronic document, you write [Electronic] in brackets, as a publication can occur both as an electronic and as a printed document.

You must never only state the URL in the reference. Such a reference will become useless as URLs in many cases are transient. But you should always include the URL that led to the document at the time you used it, at the end of the reference. At the very end of the reference you shall state the date you viewed the electronic document.

If the URL is unreasonably long, you can choose to refer to a superior page, and then state your search path with / (slash forward) as punctuation mark between the steps of your path. It is important to be consistent, in order for your readers to find the information that your publication is based on.


Author’s last name, first name initial. (date of last update). Title. [Electronic]. Available: URL. [Date of access].

For web pages that are not directly attributable to any other type of publication, write according to the following basic model above.

Textual reference

(Grofman & Stockwell, 2003)

(Konsumentverket, 2012)

Active text reference
Statistics shows (SCB, 2011) that it is common for young people to use social media ...

Web source, author

For template and textual reference, see top of page

In the reference list

Grofman, B. & Stockwell, R. (2003). Institutional design in plural societies: mitigating ethnic conflict and fostering stable democracy. [Electronic] In Mudami, R., Navarra, P. & Sobbrio, G. (eds.), Economic Welfare, International Business and Global Institutional Change. New York: Edward Elgar Publishers, pp. 102-137 Available: [2011-10-14].

Web source, organization

For template and textual reference, see top of page

In the reference list

Konsumentverket (2012-11-02). Handla på Internet. [Electronic]. Stockholm. Available: [2013-03-9]. 

Web source without a date

In the reference list

For websites without a given date you write in brackets (nd). It means "no date".

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