You are not permitted, not even for private use, to copy computer programmes protected by copyright. However, the licensee may make a back-up copy of the program.
Always count on that a picture or a diagram that you want to use in an essay or a presentation, is protected by copyright. In order to use the picture, permission must be obtained from the originator.
The original copyright holder is the person/s who made the picture, but the economic rights are often assigned to the publisher. The permission can only be given by the owner of the rights. If you are unsure if you have the right to publish a picture you can not use it.
It is permitted to use pictures in presentations for example slides in e.g. a keynote or powerpoint-presentation, but if you have no permission the image should be left out in a possible electronic edition.
For copies of images for educational purposes, see the text Copying - teaching to the left.
Photographs are divided into two groups: photographic works and photographic images. For a photo to be called a photographic work it has to have certain qualities. If that is the case, it receives the same copyright protection as other works. If the photograph does not reach certain qualities, it is called a photographic image. Whoever has taken the image has the right to make copies and publish it.
The time of protection differs between a photographic image and a photographic work. A photographic image is copyright protected for 50 years after its creation. Photographic works are protected for 70 years after the death of the originator.
In order to use copyright protected music commercially, the permission of the originator is necessary. It is also the originators who decide how their music may be used and they must be given financial compensation.
It is not usually allowed to download films, music, etc. from the Internet to your own computer. The files may be uploaded without the consent of the originator and are originally not meant to be made available through file share programs.