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On this page you will find information on how to reference

Remember this when writing a textual reference

The textual reference consists of a parenthesis containing the author's surname, the publication year and the page. An alternative is to write the surname in the text, and just the publication year and page in the parenthesis. The page is only needed when making a direct quotation.

One author
(Eriksson, 2010)

Two authors
(Larsson & Carlsson, 2012)

Three authors
(Fex, Ek & Söderhamn, 2009)

Several authors
(Yeung et al.,  2004)

In the reference list all authors of the article shall be included in the reference, but use et al. in the textual reference if there are more than three authors.

In the reference list

In the reference list, all authors of the article shall be included in the reference. In the case that the article has more than ten authors, we recommend that you mention the first author followed by et al.

Article, print


Author's last name, first name initial. (year of publication). Title of the article. Title of journal, volume (number). Pages.

Textual reference

(Fex, Ek & Söderhamn, 2009)

In the reference list

Fex, A, Ek, A-C & Söderhamn, O. (2009). Self-care among persons using advanced medical technology at home. Journal of Clinical Nursing, vol. 18(20) pp. 2809–2817.

Article, Electronic


Author's last name, first name initial. (year of publication). Title of the article. [Electronic] Title of the journal, volume (numbers), Pages/article-id. Available: Name of database [Accessed Date].

Textual reference

(Rudolfsson, 2010)

In the reference list

Ferreira, J. J., Lopes, J. M & Gomes, S. (2023). Industry 4.0 implementation: Environmental and social sustainability in manufacturing multinational enterprises [Elektronisk] Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 404, Art-id 136841. Available: Science Direct [2023-03-24]. DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2023.136841.

Rudolfsson, G. (2010). The common world : a model of the perioperative dialog, its ethos, and characteristic structural caring principles. [Electronic] International Journal for Human Caring, vol. 14(1), pp. 27-35. Available: Cinahl [2019-07-11].

Yeung, A. C.L., Cheng, T.C. E. & Ling-Yau C. (2004). From customer orientation to customer satisfaction : the gap between theory and practice. [Electronic] IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, vol. 51(1), pp. 85- 97. Available: IEEE Xplore [2019-07-11].

Articles with a DOI number
Kshetri, N. (2010). Diffusion and Effects of Cyber-Crime in Developing Economies. [Electronic] Third World Quarterly, vol. 31(7), pp. 1057-1079. Available: Academic Search Elite [2019-10-14] DOI: 10.1080/01436597.2010.518752.

Article in an encyclopedia


When you use short, unsigned articles, you shall refer to the entire encyclopedia. But if the article is longer and signed you treat it as part of an anthology. For example:

Author's last name, first name initial. (year of publication). Title of the article. In Title of the encyclopedia. Place of publication: Publisher.

If the article comes from an electronic encyclopedia add Available: URL [date]
Please observe that the word "In" is used before the reference to the anthology.

Textual reference

(Pryse-Phillips, 2019)

(Encyclopedia Britannica, 1768-2020)

In the reference list

Pryse-Phillips, W.E.M. (2019). Nervous system disease. In Encyclopedia Britannica. Available: [2020-11-17].

Encyclopedia Britannica (1768-2020) Available: [2020-11-17].

Newspaper article, Print


Author's last name, first name initial. (year of publication). Title of the article. Title of newspaper, Date of publication.

Textual reference

(Reidy, 2021)

In the reference list

With author
Reidy, T. (2021). 'Arts graduates are flexible': why humanities degrees are making a comeback. The Guardian, February 16.

Without author
Missing dog found half a mile from owners' home after five years. (2016). The Guardian, May 20.

Newspaper article, Electronic


Author's last name, first name initial. (year of publication). Title of the article. Title of newspaper, Date of publication. Available: Database/URL [Date of access].

Textual reference

(Leonhardt, 2020)

In the reference list

Leonhardt, D. (2020) Vaccine optimism. [Electronic] The New York Times, November 17. Available: [2020-11-17].