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On this page you will find information on how to reference

Remember! Most images are protected by the copyright law. Ask for permission to use images to make sure that you are allowed to use them in your publication. Sometimes a Creative Commons License is available. Please check which license the author has chosen and follow the guidelines for that specific license

You need to tell the creator

  • the reason for using the image
  • where you intend to publish your work including the image
  • how long you need the permission to last

Presentation of data

Images can be pictures, figures, or tables.

  • A table presents data of various kinds in table-form
  • Images can also be a visualization of results through figures, diagrams, or photographs 

All images used should be numbered. If you use several images it might be a good idea to include an index of tables and figures. Usually such an index is included in an appendix after the reference list, but check your instructions to make sure what to do.

Textual reference

(Säljö, 2000, s. 120).


... according to Säljö (2000, p. 120) ...

In the reference list

You do not need to include the image itself in your work – you can reference it regardless. Make sure to reference the original source correctly by using the full reference in combination with an in-text reference. Do not forget to include the page number where the image can be found.

Säljö, R. (2000). Lärande i praktiken: ett sociokulturellt perspektiv. Stockholm: Norstedts. 

Image in book


Last name, first name initial. (Year). Title: eventual subtitle. Place of publication: Publisher.

For textual reference and reference list, see top of page.

Image in database


Organization (Year or n.d.) Titel: eventual subtitle [photograph]. Available: Name of database.

If a person in mentioned as the creator their name should be mentioned instead of ”organization”. Concerning photographs, the photographer of the image should be credited and if there is no information on who took the picture you should credit the responsible organization.

For textual reference and reference list, see top of page.

Image from the Web


Last name, first name initial. (Year). Title [Photograph]. URL [Date of access]

For textual reference and reference list, see top of page.