In this guide you will find information on how to reference the following sources using Harvard
- Academic material, reports, and annual reports
- Course material
- Film, Radio, TV, DVD, Video
- Images, figures, diagrams, graphs, tables
- Laws and statutes
- Mailing list
- Official publications
- Oral sources
- Patents and standards
- Secondary referencing
- Social media
- Unpublished materials
- Web sources
The Harvard referencing system is not a cohesive system but can differentiate when it comes to certain details. Our guide is based on the "Guide to the Harvard System of Referencing" by Anglia Ruskin University.
The Harvard system consists of two parts, one being the in-text referencing, and the other a complete bibliographic reference of the sources you used; the reference list.
When there are two or three authors you write & between the names within the brackets e.g. (Svensson & Jansson, 2021), but if the namnes are written outside the brackets you are supposed to write the actual word and : Svensson and Jansson (2021) ...
Source without a date
Use the abbreviation n.d. (no date) for a web site without data/year
In text: (Johnson, n.d.)
In reference list: Johnson, P. (n.d.).
Several sources say the same thing
Janson, 2019 and Pearson, 2020 share opinions. Then you write:
...(Janson, 2019; Pearson, 2020)