Copying texts for private use
You may not copy the entire content of a book or journal, but for private use it is permitted to copy:
- a limited section, such as a chapter in a book
- a poem
- a journal article
Remember that you can ask the author to get permission to use copyrighted material. In connection with the request, tell the author that the text or image should be used in an academic context. It can make it easier to get permission.
It is also permitted to burn your own copy of a purchased cd, record film from television or copy material which has been published on the Internet with the permission of the originator.
Copying texts within the organisation
Through a copy license signed by University West, one is permitted to make copies from published books, magazines and journals and distribute the copies to other employees.
This license is valid provided that no more than 15% or 15 pages from a book, magazine or journal are copied. It may involve material you need, but that will not be used in the actual teaching.
The agreement only concerns photocopies. Digital material is not included in the agreement.
One is not permitted, not even for private use, to copy computer programs protected by copyright. However, the licensee may make a back-up copy of the program.
Photographic works and images
Always count on that a picture or a diagram that you want to use in an essay or a presentation, is protected by copyright. In order to use the picture, permission must be obtained from the author/authors.
The original copyright holder is the person who made the picture, but the economic rights are often assigned to the publisher. The permission can only be given by the owner of the rights. If you are unsure if you have the right to publish a picture you can not use it.
It is permitted to use pictures in presentation as for example slides in a presentation, but if you have no permission the image should be left out in a possible electronic edition.
For copies of images for educational purposes, see the text Copying - teaching.
Terms of protection
Photographs are divided into two groups: photographic works and photographic images. For a photo to be called a photographic work it has to have certain qualities. If that is the case, it receives the same copyright protection as other works. If the photograph does not reach certain qualities, it is called a photographic image. Whoever has taken the image has the right to make copies and publish it.
The time of protection differs between a photographic image and a photographic work. A photographic image is copyright protected for 50 years after its creation. Photographic works are protected for 70 years after the death of the originator.
Music and downloading from the Internet
In order to use copyright protected music commercially, the permission of the originator is necessary. It is also the originators who decide how their music may be used and they must be given financial compensation.
It is illegal to download films, music etc. from the Internet to your own computer. The files are often uploaded without the consent of the originator and are originally not meant to be made available through file share programs.